In my last post I set forth the basic steps involved in what has been called the Mimetic Sequence. It is the normal means for presenting a student with an idea that they can hopefully grasp to the point of embodying. In short review, the steps were as follows:
- Pre-presentation Stage – the student’s mind is prepared to receive a new idea
- Presentation Stage – the idea is presented in types, giving them as least two but hopefully more types to work with
- Comparison Stage – the teacher and student compare the types for similarities and dissimilarities.
- Explanation Stage – the teacher determines to what degree the student understands the idea by having them put the idea in their own words, either written or oral.
- Application Stage – the student seeks to apply the idea to their life.
Much of my teaching experience comes in the Humanities, where the ideas tend to be large and take a lifetime to apply. But the Mimetic Sequence is relevant to all subjects, at all ages, in all aspects of instruction. It is integral to moving the student from simple knowledge (knowing facts) to the deeper more permanent mode of understanding the truth revealed by the connection of facts to each other.
So, as promised, let me set out a simple plan for teaching an idea. I have recently had Juniors in high school consider the idea of prejudice with me through a presentation of the novel by J.F. Cooper, The Deerslayer in English class. The following were the steps through which we considered this idea.
- In our first lesson together, I presented the students with several instances from the news of prejudicial thinking. Some were racially based, some were political or economic. For the most part, these were things the students knew from their own attention to the news. We discussed why prejudice is a problem from several angles: logic, socially, politically, religiously. I then ended the lesson by stating that our class would be reading a novel that dealt at length with the idea of prejudice.
- Given the size of the novel, the second stage, that of Presenting, took several weeks. As we read the novel in class, I regularly would point out how every character in the story demonstrated various forms of prejudice, whether it was racial, cultural, or religious. It helps when the idea being discussed is embodied in the lives of even fictional characters as they are presented (stories are powerful teachers).
- Especially as the novel came to a close, we regularly discussed the various character’s virtues and vices, comparing and contrasting their choices. This comparison stage is a very powerful way to distinguish the nuances of an idea. For instance, the racial prejudice was almost over the top in the novel, but the gender prejudices were more subtle and yet clear.
- The student was able to express the idea in two ways. First, they kept a journal throughout the reading in which they voiced their responses to the actions of the characters, explaining in particular how the prejudices of the novel were similar and dissimilar to our own time. Secondly, they were given a series of essay prompts to write on, most of which revolved around prejudicial thinking.
- The last stage of Application will take the student the rest of his life, but even during and right after the novel, class discussion and hallway banter indicated that the idea had been clarified and pressed home to the soul of many of the students. They were seeing the idea more clearly and trying to live differently in light of the truth learned.
The fun of teaching is to creatively take this basic sequence of learning and apply it to all subjects. Every lesson has an idea, a unifying principle that takes the content and makes it join into the whole of truth. Seeking those ideas is one of the basic joys of teaching and learning.
But there is a third column…
This post continues the discourse I began a few posts ago on Adler’s Three Columns of learning. I am listing all related posts at the bottom of that first post, so it would be the default starting point if you are just joining.
We have already established that acquiring knowledge is the beginning, but the not the end of education. And it was stated that in acquiring “facts” we naturally yearn to make sense of them, to connect them. This is the natural progress of Content toward the second column of learning, Ideas. Ideas connect discreet facts into patterns of meaning called Ideas. Bringing a student to an idea is perhaps the most significant act of teaching. We actually don’t wish to bring a student to an idea, as in some sort of tour through an exhibition of “ideas” that are out there, but rather to bring our students to embody the ideas that bring meaning to life.
Ideas are what make education move from the impersonal notion of fact (there is some piece of truth lying over there in the road, or being spoken of in this classroom) to a personal relationship with the truths discovered. That is the notion of embodying truth; of becoming different because truth is not simply acknowledge, but has become applied to the way in which the student moves in and understands his world to be.
This is much deeper and more difficult education than simple First column learning. The teacher must follow somewhat of a careful pathway to bring a student to embody an idea. It does not happen in any singular act, but comes from a series of experiences and engagements with an idea and its content. The Circe Institute has outlined this pathway, naming it the Mimetic Sequence. The following is a bald outline of the Sequence. My next post will exemplify the process for clarity’s sake.
For a student to grasp an idea, the following basic steps must be included in the lesson he is being led through.
||Move to next stage when…
|Prepare the students to contemplate the idea by making them aware of what they already know about the idea
||Moving from known to unknown, building on last thing studied, why is this being studied, what is the compelling question
||The student is attentive to the idea
|Present Types of the idea
||Finding at least two, preferably more types of the idea, especially helpful are opposites
||The student has seen at least two but hopefully more clear types of the idea
|Compare the types with each other
||Teacher and student should converse about the things that are similar and disimilar and how they all reveal the idea
||Enough types have been compared to hopefully bring about an “ah ha” moment
|Ask the student to express the idea in their own words
||This can be oral or written, or even through models or artifacts
||The student can clearly express the idea; if they can’t go back to Stage 2 or 3
|Have student use or apply the idea
In my next post will take these steps and show how they would look in a specific lesson on a given idea.
Mortimer J. Adler and his collaborators in the Paideia Proposal, should be viewed from the current vantage point as an important but mostly failed attempt to recover the Liberal Arts in the early 1980’s. That happens to be when I was beginning to consider the art of teaching for myself in college. Many of the arguments that the Paideia Group made struck me as mandated by the system, the government school system, that they were seeking to reform. In other words, they only suggested certain reforms or principles because those fit the public school system. Fixing a broken thing is much different from trying not to become broken.
But a very useful and positive distinction was made by the group, one that I have written only briefly on in this blog, and that was several years ago. So I am going to pump the volume a little on the great discussion in the Paideia Proposal of the Three Columns of learning. I will briefly overview them here, then draw each out more in succeeding blogs.
So I’ll briefly overview them here, then draw each out more in succeeding blogs.t discussion in the Paideia Proposal of the Three me caveats are required up front.
- The columns overlap. They are not cut and dried distinctions, but rather something like a continuum upon which all learning lies.
- While practical things come from contemplating these columns, they are not themselves necessarily “practical” in the sense of directly applying to a lesson, but rather lie behind the lesson and the teacher’s understanding of what is happening in a lesson.
- “Skills” is a very oily word these days in education. John Dewey is probably to blame for that. He emphasized in his form of progressive education a much different meaning for “skills” development than what Adler and his bunch meant by the term. Dewey was seeking to instill skills that brought one into societal awareness and becoming a part of the collective. Adler is speaking of those skills necessary to pursue truth, or in other words, the Liberal Arts. The corrolation of a “skill” with the ancient notion of “art” can be read about here.
Without further ado, here is a chart of the three columns as presented in the Paideia Proposal:
||Acquiring organized knowledge
||Embodiment of Virtuous Ideas
||Development of the Skills needed for Learning
|Mimetic Sequence with Socratic Questioning
More will be coming in the weeks to come.
This is a list of related posts that came after this introductory one:
- Contents Under Pressure – First column, Content
- What is the Big Idea? – major points on Second column, Ideas