The concept of collecting a student’s work over a given year or school career has a long and successful history, but with the coming of the digital classroom, seems to be enjoying a revival of popularity. Now more than ever it is easy to form a student portfolio of work. But why? Does building a portfolio for each student really have any demonstrable purpose for all the work involved?
Defining the term:
According to a great white paper on eportfolios (electronically collected portfolios), Dr. Helen Barrett divides the practice into two categories: the Positivist and the Constructivist approaches (Barrett). The first type are created for learning, while the second are as learning. The Positivist approach is usually for some lengthy project (a research paper, for example) where the student gathers evidence of their work for a summative grade at the end of the project. In the case of a research paper, the portfolio would include their notes, outline, and successive drafts. The Constructivist approach is often a series of works that show formative assessment, with each entry showing progress toward overarching goals, like a series of ever increasing essays to show writing improvement. The two can certainly be used in tandem, but generally these two categories cover the major reasons for having student portfolios.
I think good practice would be to have a single Positivist type eportfolio that shows work from all classes throughout a four year high school career. Certainly Constructivist portfolios for major projects could be rolled into the Positivist one, but one portfolio to rule them all should the ultimate goal.
Arguments for their use:
What are the arguments making this kind of long term effort worthwhile? Isn’t this just a form of “cya” in education where teachers kind of shrug their shoulders and say, “Here is the best they could do”? No, there are several compelling arguments for positive portfolio pursuit.
Let’s start with the obvious. The move in education toward digital work is almost complete. What is needed these days is a way of storing all the work in such a way that it is organized, useful, and accessible. Portfolios are a simple way to get this need addressed. It is the parking garage for all a student’s digital work, maybe with some “public” and some kept private.
A second great reason for portfolio use is the “resume” argument. Showcasing a student’s work in high school is becoming an ever increasing need for college entrance. Requiring a student to form such a portfolio throughout high school greatly reduces the stress of forming one late in their high school career.
But the most compelling reason for me is a pedagogical one. I have often stated that education is not about any one day or lesson, but the whole string of sausages. It is a cumulative enterprise, in other less picturesque words. A portfolio promotes lifelong learning in a student through causing them to contemplate their work. In doing so, they determine a number of things including but limited to: what is their best work (and why), the incremental development of their learning skills, finding connections between assignments and projects stretched out over several years, and, of course, an appreciation for how far they have come over the course of the collection.
I could further argue the case with the assessment value of such a portfolio as it pertains to parents and teachers assessment of the student’s progress. But the above student contemplation is more important perhaps than even this clear advantage.
But portfolio use is not a panecea. There are any number of possible portfolio pitfalls. First is the question of who decides its content? I would argue for the student leading the decision with a set of criteria provided by the school. As stated above in discussing the need for “storage” I think all digital work should be kept, but some should be shared publically (becoming the actual portfolio) and rest kept “in house” and out of access to all except those involved in the assignment. This becomes a skill that is helpful to the student throughout life: learning to critique their work and select that which is their best effort for public display.
But this begs another question: that of privacy. Shouldn’t a student’s work remain private: just between himself and his teacher? I will grant the question but ask in return for the possible reasons for this to be so. Is there something negative in the work that should be kept private? Most of the time this argument is coming from a place of embarrassment or the like. I would argue that both student and teacher enter into the class work with more vigor when the final result might be on display for all to see. Policy to protect the privacy of students can easily be put in place, but again I think the question of why is important to consider rather than just assuming it.
Perhaps the issue whether to display the content with or without grading and instructive marking addresses the previous privacy issue. In many cases the student just doesn’t want everyone to see how much “red ink” is on the paper, or what the final grade was. I think it is quite appropriate for such to be left off, and with digital work this is very easy. The grade book keeps the grade record; the portfolio shows the work.
Another possible pitfall is the manner of presentation. If the portfolio is online (and some schools choose to use offline digital means: thumb drives, CDR’s, etc.), then the question of access must be addressed as the portfolio process is put in place. Certainly all the portfolios should pull from the same sources, look roughly the same, and be consistent. But making such fully public, or a shared private domain, are issues that need to be addressed as the means of making the portfolios are investigated and determined. In the Resources section below there are loads of places both free and by subscription that can help address this issue.
But one pitfall stands above all others: when a portfolio system is implemented but then not used and therefore becomes a huge waste of time. If a school is going to do this well, teacher and student must buy in and be prepared to use the system across the curriculum and consistently. Keeping things going all along the career of a high school student is way more beneficial and time conscious than when one tries late in the career to go back and build one. I recommend beginning such a project with a given Freshman class and building it forward with that class each year, not trying to back log anything from the past.
Anyone who knows me knows I use Evernote extensively. I would therefore adhere to those who believe this product to be the easiest way to curate the portfolio. A simple “portfolio” notebook within Evernote, shared with all concerned, would be rather simple.
If the school chooses to have some summative presentation for the portfolio, either at the end of each year, or end of Senior year, then the student would need to “clean up” the notes into something a little more flowing, but that would still be easy within Evernote, given its “Presentation” tool in Premium. Of course a no cost solution would be to export the portfolio to some other presentation tool when that time comes.
There are online portfolio options, the best of which cost money, but this seems the simplest to me, and keeping it simple seems the best way for it actually get used. (See resources below for more options).
The most practical thing to keep in mind is simplicity of use. The more steps and the more work, the less likely for everyone to keep using it, teachers and students alike.
- Barrett, Helen C., PhD. “Researching Electronic Portfolios and Learner Engagement.” The REFLECT Initiative (n.d.): n. pag. Web.
- Davis, Vicki. “11 Essentials for Excellent EPortfolios.” Edutopia. N.p., 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 20 July 2017.
- flippededucation.com – Google Sites as a Tool for Student Portfolios
- Hopkinson, Ashley. “High Schools Turning to Student Portfolios to Assess Academic Progress.” EdSource. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2017.
- Kelley, Kern. “Managing Digital Portfolios – Kern Kelley.” Google Sites. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2017.
- ProjectshareTexas.org: A Guide to Understanding Student E-Portfolios
- Sample of a Student Portfolio. Kettle Moraine High School. Using Google Sites.
- “Student Portfolio Apps and Websites.” Common Sense Education. N.p., 12 May 2017. Web. 20 July 2017.
- “Thing 31: Digital Portfolios for Students.” Cool Tools for School. N.p., 15 Feb. 2017. Web. 20 July 2017.
- Vander Ark Article – Why Every Student Should Have a Digital Portfolio