I am not sure how legitimate our habit of pigeonholing each decade or generation is, but it does happen and there is a lot of discussion about the Millennial generation right now. This presentation was particularly provocative. Does anyone care to discuss it with me? Does he have it right? Is there any assumptions that are wrong here? Needs all the time I can give it.
In my last post I set forth the basic steps involved in what has been called the Mimetic Sequence. It is the normal means for presenting a student with an idea that they can hopefully grasp to the point of embodying. In short review, the steps were as follows:
- Pre-presentation Stage – the student’s mind is prepared to receive a new idea
- Presentation Stage – the idea is presented in types, giving them as least two but hopefully more types to work with
- Comparison Stage – the teacher and student compare the types for similarities and dissimilarities.
- Explanation Stage – the teacher determines to what degree the student understands the idea by having them put the idea in their own words, either written or oral.
- Application Stage – the student seeks to apply the idea to their life.
Much of my teaching experience comes in the Humanities, where the ideas tend to be large and take a lifetime to apply. But the Mimetic Sequence is relevant to all subjects, at all ages, in all aspects of instruction. It is integral to moving the student from simple knowledge (knowing facts) to the deeper more permanent mode of understanding the truth revealed by the connection of facts to each other.
So, as promised, let me set out a simple plan for teaching an idea. I have recently had Juniors in high school consider the idea of prejudice with me through a presentation of the novel by J.F. Cooper, The Deerslayer in English class. The following were the steps through which we considered this idea.
- In our first lesson together, I presented the students with several instances from the news of prejudicial thinking. Some were racially based, some were political or economic. For the most part, these were things the students knew from their own attention to the news. We discussed why prejudice is a problem from several angles: logic, socially, politically, religiously. I then ended the lesson by stating that our class would be reading a novel that dealt at length with the idea of prejudice.
- Given the size of the novel, the second stage, that of Presenting, took several weeks. As we read the novel in class, I regularly would point out how every character in the story demonstrated various forms of prejudice, whether it was racial, cultural, or religious. It helps when the idea being discussed is embodied in the lives of even fictional characters as they are presented (stories are powerful teachers).
- Especially as the novel came to a close, we regularly discussed the various character’s virtues and vices, comparing and contrasting their choices. This comparison stage is a very powerful way to distinguish the nuances of an idea. For instance, the racial prejudice was almost over the top in the novel, but the gender prejudices were more subtle and yet clear.
- The student was able to express the idea in two ways. First, they kept a journal throughout the reading in which they voiced their responses to the actions of the characters, explaining in particular how the prejudices of the novel were similar and dissimilar to our own time. Secondly, they were given a series of essay prompts to write on, most of which revolved around prejudicial thinking.
- The last stage of Application will take the student the rest of his life, but even during and right after the novel, class discussion and hallway banter indicated that the idea had been clarified and pressed home to the soul of many of the students. They were seeing the idea more clearly and trying to live differently in light of the truth learned.
The fun of teaching is to creatively take this basic sequence of learning and apply it to all subjects. Every lesson has an idea, a unifying principle that takes the content and makes it join into the whole of truth. Seeking those ideas is one of the basic joys of teaching and learning.
But there is a third column…
At the moment my school’s faculty are discussing and shaping for ourselves to ideals. We are gathering ideas to produce a portrait of an Ideal Graduate and defining what an Ideal Teacher at our school would be like. These are powerful pursuits because they can lift every student and teacher to a higher plane of community and unity.
But not everyone in our day believes in ideals. I often hear that ideals lead to idealism, meaning having a standard that is impractical makes those who pursue it impractical. This is often argued in the area of assessment. The argument goes something like, “If you place some arbitrary ideal in front of a student, one they can never reach, you are just going to frustrate them.”
I disagree. Some of the argument is due to the shift from “teaching the father of the man” to a child centered pedagogy in modern theory. I will blog more extensively on the old concept that makes truth, not the person, the center of education later. But when education became more focused on how children feel in school than on what they are learning, we definitely stopped believing in ideals.
An ideal anything sets the normative basis for that thing. The ideal basketball player (who cannot possibly exists) helps the coach set before his players not only a vision they can never attain, but it also reveals to the players and coach what portion less than that ideal is acceptable on the team.
In another way of approaching it, if there is no “100%” there can be nothing to measure a 90 or 80 or 70 against. The truly great education calls a student to something beyond his reach. It certainly has to help him rise up to that calling, but once he believes himself lifted up to a higher plateau, he realizes that from that vantage point, there is another, higher, goal calling him yet up and in. I have solioquized often about how powerful I think David Hick’s Norms and Nobility is as a modern work on education. Let me allow him to more fully develop this idea in ways that are beyond my skill.
“In his quest for the best education, the ancient schoolmaster possessed two advantages over the modern educator. First, he knew exactly what kind of a person he wished to produce…Second, he agreed in form upon an inquiry-based or knowledge-centered – as opposed to a child-centered – approach to education.” (David Hicks, Norms and Nobility, p. 39)
“The past instructs us that man has only understood himself and mastered himself in pursuit of a self-transcendent Ideal, a Golden Fleece, a Promised Land, a Holy Grail, a numinous windmill. He defines himself in the quest, not on Kalypso’s unblown isle, where he is only judged against himself, where all obstacles are removed, where the question of human significance seems insignificant, and where there are no moral restraints or binding ideals. On Kalypso’s idyllic estate, Odyssean man is a nobody. He languishes in egocentric frustration, self-doubt, and insecurity. In many ways, he is a portrait of the modern student, seated “on the vacant beach with a shattered heart, scanning the sea’s bare horizon with wet eyes.” Only Odysseus’ knowledge of the past- his longing for Ithaka, Penelope, and Telemakhos- keeps him alive; and only the responsibility he takes for that knowledge rescues him from Kalypso’s pointless life of pleasure.” (David Hicks, Norms and Nobility, p. 51)
Some questions about grading that come from a discussion I am having at my school:
Questions of Diversity (are all grades the same):
- Why do some teachers use percentages of right answers, others use letter grades, some use Pass/Fail, and still others some other measurement of grading?
- What are the differences in grading by individual, by group, or by independent standards?
- Should all students be graded in the same manner? In what cases, if any, would there be differences?
Questions of Gestation (by what means are grades brought into being):
- How do grades differ when gathered from test data, performance, participation, or simply put, from what students know versus what they do?
- How do the limitations of a teacher’s knowledge, experience, assessment forming skills, and opinions affect the assigning of grades to a specific assessment? In other words, can a grade be objective despite the subjective nature of a teacher and teaching?
- How does a teacher grade self-expression (art, poetry, music, etc.)?
- If grading by percentage of correct responses, should a teacher expect all students to arrive at the “right” answer in the same way, or allow for creativity and imagination, only grading the result and not the path to the answer? What would this imply for science and math grades?
Questions of Communication (what does a grade imply or speak to):
- What does a grade measure?
- What does a grade communicate to the student and parent?
- What should a grade tell a teacher?
- What should a grade tell a future institution of learning that receives a student’s grades?
Questions of Action (what should be done with grades):
- What should a student do with his grade?
- What is the importance of grading?
- How accurate is a grade in demonstrating mastery of a subject?
- Should a student who has, say, an 83% mastery of Algebra be allowed to pass into a Calculus course?
When I see what I believe to be important articles on education, I try to pass them on. Shame on me for using technology to do it, but here is some bad news about tech in the classrooms.
I have written before on both these topics (see here, and here, for blogs on Truth). I can’t lay my hands on specific blogs about imitation, but in short we have discussed how the act of imitating great examples is central to good education.
But I want to focus on the connection between them here. To the extent that Truth becomes relative, imitation becomes less possible. If imitation is key to gaining the necessary arts (skills) that allow men to be free, then when such imitation becomes less possible, education becomes less liberal.
When I call a student to imitate a master, be it myself or some more masterly folk of yore, I am stating that the art to be imitated is truly exemplified in the sample being imitated and to that extent is therefore objectively true. But when I don’t believe, or the student does not believe, or a society has chosen not to believe that truth can be objectively known, then my assertion of a master sample becomes less powerful, something more like a suggestion.
If we give up on the basic tenets that Socrates taught us (that truth exists, can be known, and can be communicated) and swallow instead the ancient and modern fallacies of the Sophist (which are the opposite of those tenets) then we disable the powerful teaching mode of imitation.
This is worthy of way more meditation than I am giving it here. I think about this often when I am teaching students literature (what gives us the right to say these stories are worthy of study?) and composition (what makes the Greek notions of Rhetoric so worthy of modern imitation?) and the like. I would love to discuss such with other educators as we are able.