Not all students being the same, no lesson fits them all. General or Universal principles of teaching are needed to ensure that all learning at all ages, and toward all student abilities is occurring. I have recently posted John Milton Gregory’s 7 Laws of Teaching as I think they are helpful. Adler’s 3 Columns is another helpful set of principles. But my purpose here is discuss how to move around in the ability pool of any given class to make sure everyone is learning and being challenged.
The simplest way to describe a challenging course is one with high expectations. Many teachers try to teach to the middle or bottom of a class, but high expectations have us teaching toward the top. This means that even then, some will need more, and others will need help to keep up. I believe Socratic questioning is the key to handling this spectrum.
First, I have tried to be clear in my writing that questions are the most powerful tool a teacher has. There is certainly a hierarchy of questions, the highest of which cause the student to think for themselves, not simply spit out information they have been given. So the good teacher is already keeping every mind active in their class by asking questions that generate thought in all students, not just a few.
But when this condition is present, it means that the struggling student knows both what questions are causing them difficulty and that the teacher is not there to “do it for them” but rather to help them think their way to the answer. But at the very same moment, a good question has the ability to press the student is “always out in front” to go farther up, further in. This student is able to go farther with the same question. It is not that there are two lessons to be taught, one for the average and the other for the gifted, but rather that all teaching being connected to infinite Truth means that no lesson is ever fully taught.
So what are the best questions for this quest of the differentiated learning experience? Aristotle believed it was questions of cause. If you know his theory of causation, you know his four causes:
- The material cause: “that out of which”, e.g., the bronze of a statue.
- The formal cause: “the form”, “the account of what-it-is-to-be”, e.g., the shape of a statue.
- The efficient cause: “the primary source of the change or rest”, e.g., the artisan, the art of bronze-casting the statue, the man who gives advice, the father of the child.
- The final cause: “the end, that for the sake of which a thing is done”, e.g., health is the end of walking, losing weight, purging, drugs, and surgical tools. (Source)
Working with these causes, a great teacher will make sure his student is increasing in knowledge of all four causes in relation to whatever is being studied. So the questions in the room have to do with what “this” (subject being studied) is made of, is meant to do or be, who is active in doing/being “it” and why “it” even exists. These how, why, what for kind of questions are basic to both remediation and extension of any lesson. A struggling student is led back to the most fundamental questions of the lesson; one needing more is sent to the next level of questioning. There are no end of questions in any field of study. Thus questions build a continuum of instruction.
So “lesson planning” is much more question creation than it is content churning.